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Sustainable Zero Net Energy: Identifying the Essentials for Solutions

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This paper explores the challenges and opportunities available for the electricity and buildings industries as the adoption of distributed generation, energy efficiency, and zero net energy designs grow. This paper considers the following questions: how will increased penetration of distributed resources and ZNE buildings affect cost and value for the grid, utilities, and customers; how could rate structures be modified to enable sustainable, fair, and efficient development of these resources; and how might utility business models change?